In addition to this, a study of the functioning of the legal and social systems likely to develop the resources that can be used will provide a view notably of how the normative framework may be adapted to the wide range of forms of mobility available to everyone today. We can therefore wonder to what extent legislation on the physical control of borders is compatible with the virtual and sometimes real disappearance of material borders? In the same way, on a national scale, distortions are developing between two different scales that are difficult to reconcile: on the one hand, protection spaces that are defined on a local basis and, on the other hand, individual lives that are characterized by a high level of mobility. This interrogation will lead to exchanges with the research axis dealing with spaces of social citizenship, on the territorialisation of social protection action.

These stages interact with each other and contribute to the construction of personal autonomy in a way that is both unique and heavily conditioned by the resources available to the individual and the socio-historic contexts they experience. These resources are the result of personal, social and legal factors. Protection standards and measures influence individual careers through the opportunities they offer or, conversely, the barriers they create, in response to personal aspirations.

The topic is structured around several questions. How do the different dimensions of a person’s course of life interact with each other? Is it possible to identify factors which foster an increase and diversification of resources? To what extend can we measure the influence of the standards system on people’s ability to mobilise resources that encourage their autonomy? These questions are particularly acute in today’s context. The major developments in public transport and the revolution sparked by the internet in terms of exchanging information are broadening the field of possibilities like never before, whether in terms of migration, professional careers or even access to consumer goods.

Independence is one of the central values of our society, but the fact cannot be ignored that this model makes those who do not have the resources needed to achieve it vulnerable. The law therefore has the dual task of facilitating access to independence and also meeting the needs of those who do not have the means to seize the freedom of choice offered to them. In this context, there is therefore a danger of a rift opening up between the objectives of substantive law and the results it obtains or, more fundamentally, between individuals’ aspirations and the extent of their resources. It is a study of the latter that will constitute the focus of this research axis. The work will aim to the identify resources that are available and the functioning of the legal and social systems likely to foster their development. This investigation will be based in particular on work carried out among two categories of people: those whose desire to migrate has been exploited by human trafficking networks, and beneficiaries of personal microloans.

The resources that can be mobilised in such processes of construction of independence fall within several fields: the family sphere (through support and private material or non-material solidarity); education, training and social recognition through qualifications; the economic sphere (income, property, debt etc.)

This interrogation will be based on current work concerning two categories of people: those whose desire to migrate has been exploited by human trafficking networks, and those who have taken out loans (those who are overindebted and also beneficiaries of personal microloans). The team will pay particular attention to the way in which credit instruments (formal and informal) can make up for a lack of resources, while examining the role of economic or even symbolic debt in a person’s life trajectory. A large amount of research has already been undertaken by the team in the field of insufficient economic resources, both from the angle of poverty (in particular with the scientific work of the Gironde Observatory of Poverty-Precarity) and of minimum social benefits. They will be extended by a comparative approach, with an analysis of the living conditions of young adults and their professional integration in the North and South, as well as comparative law research in the field of minimum social benefits. Examining the lack of resources also implies investigating its consequences in terms of health risks (early death, morbidity) and dangers of exclusion and discrimination. These research perspectives open up possibilities for cross-subject collaborations among the researchers within this axis, as well as with other teams on the Bordeaux site, in particular on the health of young people, the dependence of elderly people and experiences of inequality.